Week 1

 

OHT Notes

Introductory Chemistry Textbook

 

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Exercises

I. Introduction and History

Unit 1

1

Ch 1.1-1.3

 

A. Chemistry

 

2

   

B. Matter

 

3

   

C. Ancient Societies

 

4,5

   

1. Egyptians

       

2. Greeks

       

3. Arabs

       

D. Alchemists

 

6

Ch1

Ch1#3

E. Galileo

       

F. Boyle

 

8

   

G. Scientific Method

 

10,11

Ch1

Ch1#8

1. Process

       

2. Hypothesis

       

3. Theory

       

4. Law

   

Ch1

Ch1#9, 10, 12

H. Lavoisier

 

9

Ch1

Ch1#14, 15

1. Mass vs. Weight

       

I. Chemistry Subdivisions

 

7

Ch1

 

II. Measurements

Unit 2

 

Ch PSS1-PSS7

 

A. Qualitative & Quantitative

 

1

 

Ch2#1

B. Parts of a Measurement

 

2

PSS.1

 

C. Accuracy

 

3

   

D. Precision

 

4

   

E. Significant Figures(bathroom scale)

     

PSS#5

F. Significant Figures Rules

   

PSS.2

PSS#9,11

G. Fundamental & Derived Quantities

 

5

 

 

H. Significant Figures in calculations

 

6

PSS.4, PSS.5

PSS#19,21,23,25

I. Solving Word Problems

 

7,8,9,10

 

PSS#69,75

J. Rounding

   

PSS.3

PSS#15,17

K. Scientific Notation

 

9

  PSS.6, PSS.7

PSS#13,31,37,39,41

Week 2

III. Metric System

Unit 3

 

Ch2

 

A. Distance

   

PSS.1

 

B. Prefixes

 

1

Ch2.1

Ch2#1,3,5

C. Mass

   

PSS.1

 

D. Weight

   

PSS.1

 

E. Volume

 

2, 7

Ch2.5,PSS.1

Ch2#29,31,37

F. Liquid Volume

 

10

Ch2.7

 

G. Unit Factors

 

8

Ch2.2, 2.3

Ch2#15,17c,79

H. Temperature

 

5,6

Ch2.8

Ch2#59,61,62
Ch4#65,67

I. Heat

   

Ch2.9

Ch2#2, Ch2#67

J. Density/Specific Gravity

 

3,4,7,9

Ch2.7

Ch2#47,49,53,57,89,91

Week 3

IV. Properties and Changes of Matter

Unit 4

Percent

Ch3

 

A. State

       

1. Solid

   

Ch3.1

 

a. amorphous

 

 

Ch11.4, 11.5

 

b. crystalline

       

2. liquid

   

Ch11.1

 

3. gas

   

Ch10.1

Ch3# 1-7 KeyConcepts 11

4. plasma

       

B. Type of Matter – concept

   

Ch3.2

 

1. Pure substance

     

Ch3#42

2. Mixtures

       

i. Heterogeneous

       

ii. Homogeneous

     

Ch3#13,15,79,81

3. Others

       

C. Physical and Chemical Properties

 

1,2,3

Ch3.6

Ch3#43,47,48,49

a. Organic vs. Inorganic

       

D. Physical and Chemical Changes

 

4

Ch3.7 Ch7.1

Ch3#51,53,57 Ch7#2

E. Law of Conservation of Mass

   

Ch3.8

Ch3#59

F. Energy

   

Ch3.9

 

1. Potential energy

       

2. Kinetic energy

     

Ch3#63,65

3. Changes and Energy

 

5

 

Ch3#75,77

a. Endothermic

     

Ch3KeyConcepts17

b. Exothermic

       

G. Law of Conservation of Energy

 

6

Ch3.10

 

1. Energy and Matter E=mc2

 

 

 

Ch3#93,91

2. Einstein

 

7, 8

 

 

            Percent worksheet

 

% Wk Sh

 

Percent Worksheet

V. Elements, Compounds,
Formulas, and Equations

Unit 5

 

 

 

A. Elements

 

 

Ch3.3

 

1. Earths Crust

 

 

 

Ch3#85

2. People

 

 

 

Ch3#86

B. Symbols

 

1

Ch3.3

Ch3#17

C. Types of Elements

 

 

Ch3.4, Ch5.1

 

1. Metals

 

 

 

 

2. Nonmetals

 

2,3

 

Ch5#17,18

a. Diatomic elements

 

4

p231 Chart

 

b. monatomic elements

 

5,6,7

p134

 

3. Semi-metals or Metalloids

 

12

 

Ch3#23,27,29,33

Week 4

D. Compounds

   

Ch3.5

 

1. Molecular - covalent

 

8,13

Ch6.1

 

2. Ionic/Salts  -  Ions

     

Ch6#1 Ch12#5

a. Cations

       

b. Anions

       

c. Polyatomic Ions

   

Ch6.3

Ch6#3

E. Binary Nomenclature

 

9-11,14

 

Ch6#27

F. Formula

   

Ch3.5

Ch3KeyConcpts13,14

a. Subscript

     

Ch3#35,38

b. Parentheses

 

15

 

Ch3#39

G. Chemical Equations and Balancing

   

Ch7.2

 

1. Reactants & Products

 

16

   

2. Coefficients

 

17

Ch7.3

 

3. Balance

 

18,19,20

Ch7.3

Ch7#17,85b,86a

Week 5

VI. The Periodic Table and Atomic Structure

Unit 6

 

Ch4, Ch5

 

A. The Periodic Table

 

17

Ch5.1

Ch5#1,5

1. Periodic Law - arranged with respect to chemical properties

 

 

Ch5.2

Ch5#5

2. Predicting formulas from a model

 

1,2

Ch5.5

Ch5#42,45

3. Atomic Number

 

18, 19

Ch5.2

Ch4#21abcg

4. Features

 

20

Ch5.3

Ch5#17,20

a. Columns

 

 

 

Ch5#73

b. Rows

 

 

 

Ch5#9,10

c. A & B subgroups

 

 

Ch5.3

 

i. Representative & Transition Elements

 

 

 

Ch6#11

ii. Halogens

 

 

 

 

iii. Noble gasses

 

 

 

 

iv. Alkali metals

 

 

 

 

v. Alkaline metals

 

 

 

Ch5#21,25abcd,26abc

B. Atomic structure

       

1. Daltons Atomic Theory

   

Ch4.1

Ch4#1ab

2. Subatomic particles

   

Ch4.2

 

a. electron

       

b. proton

     

Ch4#7,9,15,16

c. # electrons = # protons

       

d. neutron

 

3,4

   

3. Rutherford Experiment

   

Ch4.3

 

a. Nucleus and nuclear structure of the atom

     

Ch4#11,12

b. Atomic number

   

Ch4.4

Ch4#25

c. Mass number

   

Ch4.5

Ch4#22 not Atomic Nota

d. Isotopes

 

16

 

Ch4#17a,19b,20b

4. Bohr

 

5

Ch4.8

Ch4#51

5. Quantum Mechanics model

   

Ch4.7

 

6. Electronic Structure

       

a. Principal Quantum level

       

i. electrons in shells

     

Ch4#71

ii. valence shell

       

b. Orbitals

 

 

Ch4.9,Ch4.10

Ch4#67

i. spdf

       

ii. electrons per orbital

     

Ch4#70

iii. orbital shapes

   

Ch4.11

Ch4#79

7. Electron Configuration

 

6,7

Ch5.6

Ch4#75a,77

d. Valence electron Configuration

 

8,10

Ch5.7

Ch5#57,59aceg

8. Lewis Dot Structure of Atoms

 

9

Ch5.8

Ch5#61bdfh

End of Material for Exam I

13. Periodic Table Trends

 

16

Ch5.4

Ch5#29

a. electron configuration

 

 

Ch5.6

Ch5#47,53bdg

b. valence electrons

 

 

Ch5.7

Ch5#59bdfh,61aceg

c. atomic size

 

11

 

Ch5#31,35ab,36ab

d. Ionization Energy

 

15

Ch5.9

Ch5#63,64,67

f. Electronegativity

 

12,13, 14

p356-357 Just Elctng.Trend

Ch12#47,49

Week 6 - First Exam will be given

VII. Bonding and the Formation of Compounds

Unit 7

 

Ch12

 

A. What are bonds

 

 

Ch12.1

 

B. Why bonds form

 

 

 

 

1. stability and bonding

 

1,2

 

 

2. octet rule

 

 

Ch5.5

 

3. lose electrons for octet

 

 

Ch12.2

 

4. gain electrons for octet

 

3,4

 

Ch12#1,3,19ad

5. Lewis Dot Structure of Ions

 

 

Ch12.2

 

6. Charge of Ions - the octet rule

 

5,6

Ch5.5

Ch12#11ab,13bd

C. Ionic bonds

 

 

 

Ch12#9,27abd

3. Lewis Dot Structure of Ionic Compounds  or   Salts

 

7

 

 

4. Formulas of Ionic Compounds

 

8 Important

Ch6.5

Ch6#19ab

Week 7

D. Covalent bonds

   

Ch12.3

 

1. Shared electrons

     

Ch12#31abd32abd

2. Single, double, triple bonds

       

3. Lewis Dot Structure of covalent molecules

 

9

Ch12.4

Ch12#33abcd,37ab

4. Polar Covalent Bonds

 

10,11

Ch12.6 Ch12.7

Ch12#45,53

E. Polar/Non-polar Molecules

 

 

Ch12.9 Ch12.10

 

F. Coordinate Covalent Bonds

 

12—18

Ch12.8

Ch12#35b,61

G. Polyatomic Ions

     

Ch12#39a

Week 8

VIII. Nomenclature and Formulas of Compounds

Unit 8

     

A. Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds

   

Ch6.4

Ch6#19ac,21ad

B. Nomenclature

   

Ch6.1

Ch6#1

1. Binary Compounds

   

Ch6.2

 

a. metal and nonmetal

   

Ch6.5

Ch6#25ad

b. Metal  - more than one ion

 

1,2

Ch6.5

Ch6#5ac7ac27bd29ad

c. Nonmetal and nonmetal

   

Ch6.7

Ch6#45,47

Week 9

2. Ternary compounds

 

3,4

Ch6.3 Ch6.6

Ch6#15a,16b,35c,37a, 39cd

3. Acids, Bases, and Salts

       

a. Binary acids

   

Ch6.8

Ch6#49,50

b. Ternary acids

 

5

Ch6.9

Ch6#51b53b

c. Bases

 

6

Ch7.11 Ch15.3

 

b. Neutralization Reactions

 

7,8,9

Ch7.11 & p408

 

d. Binary & Ternary Salts

 

10,11,12

   

C. Determining formulas from names

 

13,14

Ch6.4

Ch6#48ab

Week 10

IX. Calculations Involving Formulas, Elements, and Compounds:

 Unit 9

 

Ch8

 

A. moles

   

Ch8.1

Ch8#1ac3ac5,7

B. Avogadros number and calculations mol-atom

 

1

Ch8.2

Ch8#9

C. atomic weight and calculations
grams to mol

 

2,3

Ch8.3

Ch8#13ab

D. grams to moles to atom or molecule

 

4,5

Ch8.4

Ch8#19ab21b

E. Formula weight and calculations

 

6,7

 

Ch8#19c

F. percent composition

 

8,9

Ch8.7

Ch8#41

G. empirical and molecular formulas

 

10,11

Ch8.9

 

End of Material for Exam II

Week 11 - Second exam will be given.

X. Equations and Chemical Reactions

Unit 10

 

Ch7

 

A. completing and balancing

 

1

Ch7.3, Ch7.1

Ch7#17ae

B. other symbols

 

2

Ch7.2

Ch7#7

C. Types of Chemical Equation

   

Ch7.4

 

D. combination/Synthesis

   

Ch7.5

 

1. two elements

     

Ch7#33,35

2. nonmetal oxide & water

 

3

 

Ch7#90

3. metal oxide and water

 

4,5

 

Ch11#63bc

E. Decomposition

 

 

 

 

1. binary compound

 

 

 

 

2. ternary acid

 

 

 

 

3. base

 

6

 

 

F. Single displacement

 

 

Ch7.7, Ch7.8

Ch7#57a

1. activity series

     

Ch7#49,61,63 also tell go or no go for all

2. oxidation and reduction

       

G. Double displacement reactions

 

 

Ch7.9 Ch7.10

 

1. neutralization reactions

 

 

Ch7.11 Ch15.11

Ch7#77

2. precipitation reactions

 

7

 

Ch7#73

H. Energy and chemical reactions

       

1. combustion

 

8,9

   

2. exothermic

       

3. endothermic

 

10,11,12

   

4. photosynthesis

 

13

 

 

Week 12

XI. Calculations from Chemical Eqns.

Unit 11

 

Ch9

 

A. what coefficients mean

 

1,2

Ch9.1

Ch9#5a,

B. mole-mole calculations

 

3,4,5,6

Ch9.2

Ch9#7,9,11

C. mass-mole-mole-mass calculations

 

7

Ch9.4

Ch9#19,21,27,87

Week 13

XII. Liquids and Changes of State

Unit 12

 

Ch11

 

A. Abundance of H2O

       

B. Boiling point

 

1

Ch3.1,Ch11.3

Ch11#1,3ab,

1. Heat of vaporization

       

C. Melting point/freezing point

 

2

Ch11.4, 13.6

 

1. Heat of fusion

       

D. Changes of state

       

1. energy

 

3,4,5

   

2. effects (heating and cooling)

       

3.density

     

Ch11#53

E. Sublimation

       

F. Heating and cooling curve

 

6

Ch11.6

Ch11#33

G. Water compared to other Hydrogen compounds

   

Ch11.8

Ch11#59

1. Why H2O is so different than H2S, H2Se, H2Te

 

7

Ch11.7

Ch11#45

2. H-bonding

 

 

Ch11.2,Ch12.9

Ch11#8,49,52,53

H. Other related concepts

 

12

Ch11.9

 

1. Formation of water

     

Ch11#61

2. Decomposition of water

       

3. Reaction with oxides

 

8

 

Ch11#63bc

4. Hydrates

 

9,10

Ch11.10

Ch11#67bc,69b,71a

5. H2O2

       

6. O3

 

11

 Page472

 

pollution

       

ozone layer

       

destruction of the ozone layer

     

 

Week 14

XIII. Properties of Solutions

Unit 13

 

Ch13

 

A. solutions

 

 

Ch13.1,Ch13.2

 

1. Solute

   

Ch13.3

 

2. solvent

     

Ch13#81

3. types

       

4. terms

 

 

Ch13.6,Ch13.7

 

B. Structure of Solutions

   

Ch13.4

Ch13#23a

C. factors that affect solubility

 

1,2,3

 

Ch13#1a,9ad,11ab,15,
19ac,79

D. factors that affect rate of dissolving

 

4,5,6

Ch13.5

Ch13#26,82

E. why solutions are important

       

F. concentration units

       

1. weight percent

 

7

Ch13.8

Ch13#43ab,44ab

2. PPM

 

8,9

   

3. Molarity

   

Ch13.9

Ch13#53ac

4. Dilution calculations

   

Ch13.10

Ch13#65,67

G. Colligative Properties

       

a. Freezing and Boiling point

       

b. Diffusion and Osmosis

 

10

 

 

End of Material for Exam III

Week 15 - Third exam will be given

Complete Unit XIII

Week 16

Final Exam will be given – Attendance is Required